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Prenatal, Perinatal, and Neonatal Factors Associated with Intellectual Disability

Prenatal and perinatal risk factors associated with intellectual disability (ID) were studied in 8-year-old Utah children from a 1994 birth cohort (N  =  26,108) using broad ascertainment methods and birth records following the most current recording guidelines. Risk factor analyses were performed inclusive and exclusive of children with a known or suspected underlying genetic disorder. Risk factors identified were poly/oligohydramnios, advanced paternal/maternal age, prematurity, fetal distress, premature rupture of membranes, primary/repeat cesarean sections, low birth weight, assisted ventilation greater than 30 min, small-for-gestational age, low Apgar scores, and congenital infection. Although several risk factors lost significance once children with underlying genetic disorders were excluded, socioeconomic variables were among those that maintained a prominent association with increased ID risk.

Bilder D, Pinborough-Zimmerman J, Bakian A, Dorius J, Nangle B, McMahon WM
Am J Intellect Dev Disabil, 118(2), 156-176

Utah Department of Health